Residential

Residential construction includes houses, apartments, townhouses, and other smaller, low-rise housing.

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Commercial / Institutional

Commercial construction includes office buildings, “big box” stores, shopping centers and malls, warehouses, banks, theaters, casinos, resorts, golf courses, and larger residential structures such as high-rise hotels and condominiums.

Institutional construction includes government and other public organizations such as schools, fire and police stations, libraries, museums, dormitories, research buildings, hospitals, transportation terminals, some military facilities, and governmental buildings.

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Industrial

Industrial construction includes buildings and other constructed items used for storage and product production, chemical and power plants, steel mills, oil and gas drilling, oil refineries and platforms, manufacturing plants, pipelines, compressor stations, gas plants, wind farms and seaports.

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Offshore / Maritime

Offshore construction includes oil and gas inland and production platforms, hydroelectric plants and utilities, inspection/replacement/repair of dams and wind farms constructed in bodies of water.  Port, harbor, marina and pier inspection/repair/replacement, anchor cable installation, underwater welding, concrete placement/repair, dredging, anode installation, data and power cable installations and underwater demolition. Also includes transportation infrastructure inspection/replacement/repair and installation of tunnels and bridges is also in this category.

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Aerospace

Aerospace construction includes research, design, development, building, manufacturing, inspecting and maintaining aircraft equipment, computer systems, navigation technology, propulsion technology and fabricating and building materials to be used in atmospheric and space environments to serve as hubs and temporary habitation modules.

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Civil Engineering / Roadwork

Civil engineering / roadway construction includes construction of transportation infrastructure for public or private use, facilities, equipment, and buildings.  Examples are roads, bridges, railroads, tunnels, airports and fortified military facilities.  Dams are also included, but most other water-related infrastructure is considered environmental.

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Environmental

Environmental construction was part of heavy civil, but is now separate, dealing with projects that improve the environment. Examples are water and wastewater treatment plants, sanitary and storm sewers, solid waste management, and air pollution control.

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Mining

Mining construction includes extracting minerals or other geological material from the earth by surface mining, underground mining or highwall mining.

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Clean/Renewable Energy

Naturally Replenished renewable energy sources such as geothermal heat, wind, water and solar.

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